落實普世教育,共創世界和平──淨空老法師開示及一點感想

以下文章引用自:淨空法師專集網http://www.amtb.tw (fb:https://www.facebook.com/amtbtw/?tn-str=k*F )。

 

許多宗教之顛如上帝、真主等,其實就是佛法所稱「佛性」(自性;人人、蟲蟲皆有)。萬法(宇宙一切現象)唯自心所造,即「心、境一體且境隨心轉」,即因果輪迴報應不斷,即一人(一蟲、一鬼神等)一世界。如做人常貪而不肯布施助人,生時則福報減而漸生活苦,死後更墮餓鬼受飢餓苦,做人不守正道、淫慾過甚,則易墮畜生道(若性猛,變猛獸;性喜偷而不誠實,變鼠類等;性怨深,變蛇類等…,都是個性習氣使然),若是犯重罪,如淫業重、殺業過重、毀謗佛法(佛法是真理,功德大無邊,故毀謗則自招罪也),生時漸慘,死後墮地獄(除非快快懺悔、念佛(也勸人念佛)往生西方極樂還有救)。

 

道德教育中,倫理教育使人羞於作惡,但因果教育是讓人不敢作惡,故因果教育是最可怕的教育,收效最快。道德講堂之能收速效(才七天就有大效果),應是因果課程讓人明白因果的可怕(如現在偷人錢,將來墮餓鬼道受苦,就讓人怕了;若是詐騙別人錢財乃至致人於死(看過一新聞,有婦人被詐騙幾百萬元,萬念俱灰,遂自殺了,其冤魂必會報仇,即使死者不報仇,因果自會運作的),就是墮地獄),凡有所作,皆有報應,絲毫不爽。但因果複雜,故各人報應相差極大,故常讓人看不清楚,故須講清因果原理。下面略說之。

 

因果通三世(過去一世二世無盡世;今世;未來一世二世無盡世),故今生若聰明,乃前世常法布施(如念經修行(但沒修成功,又到人間來了;有的修更差,如學佛卻常造種種惡業,則一樣墮惡道)、教人有用知識、為人指路等),若聰明但短命,則是前世常法布施但又殺業重之故;若富有,則是前世常財布施(常做義工也是財布施)之故;若長壽,前世常無畏布施,如救護生命、戒殺、吃素、慈心待一切人事物等。這是注定的報應,即命運。但命運可轉變,今生努力斷惡向善(對蟲蟻動物恭敬莫輕易傷害、謙虛、端正心念、常助常恭敬一切人事物等)勤念佛,必能轉命運,至少能將命中注定災禍先減輕,後境漸佳。

 

有的好人卻短命,殊不知其可能前世殺業重,今生雖對人好,但對動物不好(常殺生),故無法長壽也。有的惡人作惡多,卻活七十歲,財產有二億,殊不知,其過去世積福甚多,但今生迷於酒色財氣,財本十億減為二億,壽命本九十減為七十,實已經大大折福了。且死後要墮地獄,這是凡夫看不出的,唯佛法說得清楚。

 

現世報也很多,譬如常在網路無端批評人者,再過幾天(時間不一定,也可能更長時間)自己就容易被流言中傷;平日常殺生(故莫無故傷蟲蟻,能生福報、平安),則容易見血光(受傷流血),此皆現世報也。曾有一位念佛人,在吳家當僕人(工作時亦可念佛不斷),精進念佛功力已深(知道過去生自己的因果),有日清兵攻來,他家主人攜家眷逃了,唯他留家,被開七槍死去。待主人回來,他又甦醒,說:我本來死後要投胎七世做豬(過去生造業的結果),但因吃素、持戒念佛精進,已是重罪輕報應,我受七槍抵七世豬命(應要被宰殺),現在阿彌陀佛來接引,我要往生西方極樂(作佛)去了。說完就合掌念佛往生了。(原文見下面「註一」,出自「念佛法要」一書卷二,作者為毛惕園居士)

 

那古時人心善良者多,為何也有大災難呢?古人災難較少,間隔時間較長,會有災難,乃因古人仍有打獵、捕魚、養雞殺鴨等殺生行為,雖人心較敬畏天地,但災難仍然不免。

 

故因果複雜,只要好好信因信果莫毀謗佛法、愛惜動物蟲蟻生命,就是有福人。更究竟的,六道輪迴畢竟是苦海,故唯有往生極樂,則永脫眾苦,且可仗阿彌陀佛願力,神通大無邊,可分身無量,度宇宙一切苦難有緣眾生,樂也。明朝時某地鬧大旱,大家請淨土宗八祖蓮池大師幫忙,大師謙虛說:我只會念佛(其實念佛威力大無窮,特別是境界高的人念佛感應快)。大家仍求,於是大師帶大家到田中念佛不斷(大師平日都教人要戒殺,可能現場也勸大家此後要注意戒殺),沒多久就下大雨了。這種事不止一例,甚多,就不多說了。在現代,一樣,若某國某區域念佛人多,吃素、戒殺人多,則災難必少。反之,災難多,我有一網友,家住台灣中南部山中村落,村落中養雞殺鴨多,約十年前有次下大雨,土石流沖到村落,幸無傷亡。此皆境隨心轉。(善心引善境,惡心引惡果)

 

儒曰:己所不欲,勿施於人。就是因果了(孔子亦說過「遊魂為變」,孔子並沒有否定鬼神)。道家「太上感應篇」(太上即自性(佛性))講得也是因果。神愛世人(蟲、動物、鬼神,過去生皆曾是人也),神即自己(佛性),故因果自作自受也(常殺蟲,則多病多傷折福祿(光看醫生就要醫藥錢,若再住院,花錢更多))。真主至大且仁慈,真主即自性(佛性),人人有仁愛、清淨自性,故須仁愛一切人事物也。

 

現今世間因人心不善,故境隨心轉,天災興盛,人禍也漸多了,比幾十年前更明顯的差(台灣幾十年前至少學校較重視禮義廉恥等四維八德的教育,且電視內容單純多了,有不少教忠教孝教善良的戲劇、卡通,較純淨,故也積了福報,創造了經濟榮景(現今全世界經濟也不穩,亦是人心不善所致);現今電視網路媒體內容不堪卒睹(暴力、淫亂、勾心鬥角、人我是非),故子殺父、父殺子新聞屢見不鮮;但也有有心人士已在提倡弟子規、禮義廉恥等內容,這是好發展,隨喜讚嘆者還能增福報;而阻礙者、毀謗者,必遭惡果(如家宅不安、子孫不聽話、工作考試運差、官運大敗等))。若能深信因果,斷惡向善,有緣者多念佛(餘宗教多祈禱),對世界大有利益,收效必速!

 

僅述數語。末學妙音(咪弟)頂禮慚愧學習。阿彌陀佛!

 

●註一:「清吳毛,青陽吳氏僕也。持齋念佛,兼修眾善。清兵渡江,吳氏合家逃避,毛獨居守,被兵七槍而死。亂定主返,毛復甦曰:「我以宿業,當受豬身七次,因齋戒念佛,以七槍散怨,今佛來接引往生西方矣。」語畢,合掌念佛而逝。


 
【按】念佛修善而慘死,如非復活自言,安知其轉後報重報為現報輕報,蒙佛接引往生耶?凡行善念佛而遭逆境者,即應省悟慶幸而更精進也。」


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10月20日上午10:34

 

落實普世教育,共創世界和平——二〇一九年聯合國教科文組織國際和平大會 閉幕致辭


Implementing Universal Education, Building World Peace -- Address at the Closing Ceremony of UNESCO International Peace Conference 2019

 

主講:淨空老法師 (恭請勝妙法師代讀)
Speaker: Venerable Master Chin Kung AM
時間:二〇一九年十月九日
Date: 9 September 2019
地點:法國巴黎聯合國教科文組織
Venue: UNESCO, Paris, France

尊敬的諸位大使閣下、諸位嘉賓、女士們、先生們:大家好!


Respected Ambassadors, Distinguished Guests, Ladies and Gentlemen, warm greetings to you all.

 

為期三天的聯合國教科文組織國際和平大會已接近尾聲。這次大會邀請了教科文組織的領導與大使們、各方的專家學者們,集思廣益,展現了多元宗教與傳統文化中的倫理、道德、因果和愛的教育對社會的影響,為世界和平與和諧發表重要談話。通過互相觀摩、學習,使我們更加堅信這種普世教育的重要性非比尋常。


The three-day UNESCO International Peace Conference is drawing to a close. The Conference invited leaders and ambassadors of UNESCO and experts and scholars of various disciplines. In their speeches they all shared their wisdom, and demonstrated the social influence of the universal education of ethics, morality, causality and love in different faiths and traditional culture towards lasting world peace and harmony. Through exchanging ideas and mutual learning, we have developed stronger faith in the extraordinary importance of this type of universal education.

 

議程中還舉辦了世界各族萬姓先祖祭祀大典與三時繫念法會,讓我們感受到祖先和聖賢佛菩薩對我們的慈悲護佑和殷殷教導,激勵我們努力奉行和傳承。在此,我謹代表「淨空之友社」,向諸位和平使者無私的奉獻,表達由衷的感謝和崇高的敬意!


During the Conference we also held the Global Ancestral Remembrance Ceremony and the Thrice Yearning Ceremony, which enabled us to feel the compassionate and tireless protection and guidance of our ancestors, sages, Buddhas and bodhisattvas. They encouraged us to practise and hand down their teachings. On behalf of the Association, I would like to humbly express my sincere gratitude to and great respect for all the selfless messengers of peace.

 

全世界是一個生命共同體,「牽一髮而動全身」,彼此休戚與共,息息相關。當今世界問題重重,人類必須共同面對許多挑戰。解決問題就如同大夫治病,須先找到病根,才能對症下藥。這三天的切磋,我們得到一個重要的共識,種種問題的根本原因,都是因為教育出了問題----西方疏忽了宗教教育,東方疏忽了傳統文化教育。這兩者共通的是四種普世教育:倫理教育、道德教育、因果教育和聖賢智慧與愛的教育。由於疏忽了普世教育,所以人們的人生觀與價值觀產生偏差,造成人心澆薄、道德淪喪,導致衝突暴力不斷升級……種種亂象紛至沓來,愈演愈烈。如果不積極尋求方法解決,有可能發展到無法挽回的地步!解決之道,如中國最早的教育專論《禮記 》所說:「建國君民,教學為先。」復興普世教育是當務之急。我們必須萬眾一心,全力復興倫理、道德、因果、聖賢智慧與愛的這四種普世教育。


The entire world is one living entity and ‘the pull of a single hair affects the entire body’. We are closely connected to each other and experience good fortune and misfortune together. In the midst of numerous problems, humankind has to face many challenges. Solving problems is like treating an illness. Before prescribing medicine, we must first of all find the root cause of the illness. Through the three-day exchange of ideas, we have come to an important common understanding that the root cause of all problems stems from education --- the West has neglected religious education and the East the education of traditional cultures. Both of them share four types of universal education: moral education, virtuous education, causality education and the education of sages’ wisdom and love. Due to the neglect of universal education, people’s values and outlook on life have derailed. It renders indifference and moral degeneration, and causes continuous escalation of conflicts and violence……All these chaos visits us one after another and is worsened day by day. If we do not proactively seek solutions, the chaos will perhaps become irreversible. As for the solution, the earliest Chinese literature on education ‘The Book of Rites’ states, ‘To establish a country and guiding its people, education must be the priority’. It is therefore most important and urgent to vigorously develop universal education. We must be of one mind and endeavour to revive the education of morality, virtue, causality and sages’ wisdom and love.

 

復興普世教育有信、解、行、證四個過程:首先我們對普世教育要產生信心;進一步深入的研究、了解;然後在日常生活中實踐;最終達到了正己化人的效果,獲得身心安康、家庭美滿、事業順利、社會安定,就證明普世教育確實能夠帶來世界的和平。具體做法有以下建議:


The revival of universal education has four steps: believing, understanding, practicing and attaining. We should first of all have faith in universal education, then carry out in-depth research, afterwards practise it in daily life. In so doing, we shall positively influence others by correcting ourselves and consequently enjoy a healthy mind and body, a happy family, a successful career and social stability. These will subsequently prove that universal education can indeed bring peace to the world. The following suggestions are proposed for effective implementation:

 

一、培養宗教教育弘護人才


A. Nurturing teachers of promoting and safeguarding religious education

 

古人說道,「聖教無人說,雖智莫能解」,孔子也說「人能弘道,非道弘人」,所以培養德才兼備的弘護人才比什麼都重要。二O一六年,我們在英國威爾士三一聖大衛大學興辦英國漢學院,振興普世教育,培養東西文化交流的使者。二O一七年成立和諧博士班,為各宗教培養傳教師。學生不僅深入自己的宗教經典,也學習其他宗教的經典,希望這個博士班完成之後,能夠擴展為宗教教育學院,進一步發展為世界宗教大學。每個宗教設立一個學院,培養各宗教的傳教師。將來這些不同宗教的傳教師都是同學,不僅彼此和睦相處,也教導信徒們和睦相處。有了這些後繼的接班人,我們的心就安了。希望各宗教都能回歸教育,世世代代把宗教教育發揚光大。


The ancients said, ‘Without explanation by an enlightened person, sages’ teachings would not be understood with even the greatest intelligence.’ Confucius also said, ‘It is human beings who promote sages’ teachings but not the other way round.’ Therefore, nurturing virtuous and talented teachers are more important than anything else. In 2016 we established the Academy of Sinology at the University of Wales Trinity Saint David, aiming to develop universal education and produce messengers for bridging eastern and western cultures. In 2017 we established the Doctorate Class in Harmony for training teachers of different religions. The doctorate students are expected to not only delve into the scriptures of their own religion but those of other religions. We hope that the Class will later grow into an institute of religious education and, a step further, develop into a university of world religions with one faculty for each religion and the students and future teachers of different religions being classmates. They are not only in harmony with each another but will also guide their followers to stay in harmony. With these successors, our minds shall be at peace. We do hope that each religion can restore religion as education and bring lasting success to religious education.

 

二、成立普世教育中心


B. Establish Universal Education Centre

 

中國古人說,「學如逆水行舟,不進則退」。普世教育的經典需要長期的深入研習,學習者才能不斷提升自我,否則抵不過內在的煩惱和外在的誘惑。普世教育中心,也就像各宗教教會的定期聚會,共同研習本宗經典,有問題可以請教傳教師。提供大眾定期薰修經典的機會,深化對教義的理解和在生活中的落實。


The ancient Chinese said, ‘Learning is like sailing against the tide, one will recede if not sailing forward.’ Only by delving into the classics that teach universal education over a long period, can a person continuously improve themselves. Otherwise, they will not be able to resist internal afflictions and external temptations. Similar to the regular gatherings of different religions, Universal Education Centre provides facilities and long-term opportunities for people to study the scriptures of their own religion and ask teachers questions when needed as a way of deepening the understanding and practice of their own religion.

 

三、建設家文化團隊


C. Develop groups with family culture

 

現今世界有許多大企業、大型國際組織,這就像中國傳統的大家庭。如能學習普世教育,在團體中落實家文化,不分種族、不分宗教,親如一家人。向心力愈強,團體就愈發展愈興旺,這對社會的穩定和諧發揮重大的作用。目前在中國和新加坡已有企業如此落實,成效很好,讓人們深刻體會到普世教育的現代價值。希望藉此方式,讓普世教育的學習蔚然成風。


There are many large-scale enterprises and international organisations in the world today, just like traditional big families in China. If they can learn more about universal education, practise family culture within their groups, care for each other like a family, irrespective of ethnic group or religion, the centripetal force of the groups will increase. The stronger the force is, the more prosperous an enterprise will be. This plays an important role in social stability and harmony. Currently, we can find good examples in China and Singapore and they enable people to deeply understand the values of universal education in the modern age. We hope to use this approach to promote the learning of universal education.

 

四、興辦道德講堂


D. Establish moral forums

 

在中國有多處「道德講堂」,每期七天,讓人把心靜下來,專注學習倫理、道德、因果、聖賢智慧與愛的教育。讓人們明白落實這些教育的成效,以及在自己的生活中怎樣落實這些教育。事實證明,這樣的道德講堂效果顯著:逆子變成孝子、惡人變成善人、暴戾變成和諧、離婚的人復婚、吸毒的人戒除毒癮……成功率達到百分之九十,受益的人不可計量。這充分顯示普世教育淨化人心的強大力量,也讓我們看到這個世界前途的一線曙光。各宗教也可以根據自己的教義來開辦道德講堂,相信都能產生很好的效果。


In China there are a number of moral forums. Each forum lasts for 7 days. It enables attendees to calm down, focus on receiving the education of morality, virtue, causality, sages’ wisdom and love, and to understand the effects of universal education and how to practise it in daily life. The effects of these forums have been proved to be significant: defiant children have learned to respect and love their parents; the bad has retrieved the goodness in them; the violent has regained their gentle nature; the divorced have restored their marriage; drug addicts have eliminated addiction……The success rate has reached 90 per cent. People benefited from the forums are numerous in number. This sufficiently indicates the huge power of universal education in purifying people’s minds. It also enables us to see a bright future ahead of us. Similarly, each religion can establish moral forums in accordance with its own doctrine. We believe that it will yield good results.

 

五、提倡祭祀


E. Promote remembrance ceremonies

 

祭祀是藝術化的教學,讓參與者在禮樂的薰陶下,培養知恩報恩的人生態度,喚醒社會大眾對於孝親尊師的重視,使人心歸厚、仁民愛物,這樣世界諸多問題就能化解。


Remembrance ceremony is education in the form of art. It enables attendees to acknowledge others’ kindness and develop gratitude under the influence of music and propriety. It awakens the general public’s respect for parents and teachers, and restores their honesty, simplicity and love for others and all beings. Consequently, many problems in the world will be resolved.

 

六、重視一條龍扎根教育


F. Emphasise the special integrated school philosophy

 

中國蒙學典籍《養正遺規 》說道:「天下有真教術,斯有真人材。教術之端,自閭巷始;人材之成,自兒童始。」我曾經參訪一所實驗學校,他們已經默默踐行了十八年,從幼稚園一路辦到高中。孩子兩歲入學幼稚園小小班,就教他倫理,孝親尊師、友愛同學、灑掃應對。年齡稍長,再教他道德、因果、聖賢智慧與愛。良好的價值觀得以一路鞏固下來,這就是一條龍學校的意義所在。燈燈相傳,代代相繼,這樣的孩子多了,我們的未來將充滿希望。因此我們期望像這樣的普世教育,能夠納入全球教育體系,成為規範。


A Chinese classic on childhood education, entitled ‘Ancestors’ Rules and Standards for Proper Childhood Education’, states, ‘Only when there is true education approach in the world will there be true talents. Education approach starts on the street; the development of talents starts from childhood.’ I visited an experimental school once and they have quietly implemented this approach for 18 years, from kindergarten all the way to high school education. At the age of two, children enter the nursery and they are taught morality, learning to respect and love parents and teachers, to care for classmates, and how to do cleaning and interact with others with respect. When slightly older, they are taught virtue, causality and sages’ wisdom and love. As a result, good values are reinforced with no interruption throughout their education and this is the significance of integrated schools. The more children with good values there are, the more hope we shall have for the future. Therefore, we hope that this kind of universal education will be included in global education systems and become a standard.

 

以上是我們摸索多年的一點點經驗,誠心供養各位嘉賓,希望我們在弘揚普世教育時不用走彎路。當前人類所面對的世界比所有宗教聖哲在世時更危急、更複雜。我們必須同舟共濟,共體時艱,承擔歷史責任,遵循經典的教導,分辨正確的方向,端正自己的心境,不對立、不指責、不苛求、不畏難、不急於求成,嚴以律己,寬以待人,為普世教育的傳承做好墊腳石的工作,共同完成「為往聖繼絕學,為萬世開太平」的時代使命。


The above is our humble experience accumulated over the years. We sincerely present it for your perusal, and hope it helps with avoiding unnecessary detours when promoting universal education. Humankind is now in a time that is much more dangerous and complex than the times of all past religious saints and sages. We must therefore work and go through the hard times together, and shoulder our historic responsibility. We should follow the teachings in the classics, navigate the right direction and mend our mindsets. We should neither conflict with nor blame each other; neither be demanding nor fear difficulties. We should not expect quick results. We should be strict with ourselves but generous towards others. We should properly play the roles of stepping stones to universal education development. Together, we will accomplish the mission of practising and sustaining the eternal teachings for the past sages and of paving the way for lasting peace and harmony for generations to come.

 

最後,祝福大家身心健康,萬事吉祥!祝福世界安定和平,永續大同!謝謝大家!


Lastly, may you all enjoy a healthy mind and body. May auspiciousness be upon all of you. May the world enjoy lasting stability, peace and Great Harmony. Thank you.

 

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